The progress of economic globalization has greatly hit the social life.
Advertising has become an important way of modern marketing and has attractedmerchants and the company. As people's consciousness worldwide enhances, manyproducts and services of advertising will be translated into other languages forpromotion to explore overseas markets. Advertising, as an effective way ofdisseminating brand information, has penetrated into many aspects of social life, andit plays a bridge role in connection and communication. Since China's accession tothe WTO, its connection with the world gets even closer. More and moreinternational enterprises and product brands come into China's huge market.
Translation of products and services for overseas consumers is not only the functionof promoting consumption, but also the effect of external publicity. In the globalmarket, advertising translation not only brings an opportunity for advertising, butalso has brings the huge challenge. Therefore, mastery of both Chinese and Englishadvertising translation is particularly important.
Skopos theory is the foundation and the core theory of functionalism. Skopostheory holds that the process of the whole translation behavior is determined to thepurpose of translation action, that is, the end justifies the means. The purpose of thetranslation behavior is the core element which determines the translation process.
Advertising translation has a strong purpose. What is more important toadvertising translation is whether translation can convey the purpose of source textand achieve the anticipated target of the source text, so as to attract the attention offoreign customers to induce their consumption desire, eventually to incur purchasebehavior.
1 Advertising Translation Studies in the West.
Advertising translation was mentioned in translation studies for the first time inHurbin's （1972） article “Peut-on traduire la langue de la publicé” （Can OneTranslate the Language of Advertising?）。 At that time, linguistics was the dominanthumanistic discipline, meanwhile, linguistics made translating a code-switchingoperation. Equivalence-based linguistic approaches mainly focus on the source text.
Hurhin argued that for one source text, there are several translations, and thetranslators chose which translation is the most appropriate one. Hurbin also pointedthat if glossaries of advertising language is compiled, this was made easier. So thetranslators will be easy to find the most appropriate equivalent expressions betweenthe source and the target text.
In Candace Seguinot's （1995） article “Translation and Advertising: GoingGlobal in Cultural Functions of Translation”. The main opinion of which is thatacross cultural boundaries, there is an understanding of culture and semioticsappearing in the marketing of goods and services. It goes well beyond both languageand design.
Another representative article “Advertising: a five-stage strategy for translationin Translation” as Intercultural Communication which is edited by C. Nord et al. Thearticle is published by Smith & Klein-Braley （1997）。 In this article, they conduct acontrastive analysis of English and German advertising. Then they developedtaxonomy of strategies for the analysis of advertising translation.
Up to now, the book which maybe the only one published exclusively onadvertisement translation is Translation Practices in International Advertisingwritten by Mathieu Guidere （2001）。 This book mainly talks about various aspects ofadvertising translation in international market and mainly concerns the globaladvertising of multinational companies, because they need to translate their productsinformation into other languages. The author analyzes some examples in advertisingtranslation and he shows readers some essential problems in current translation ideas.
This book introduced the strategies of translation which are implemented by the multinational firms to break into new markets.
2 Advertising Translation Studies in China.
Domestic advertising translation studies officially started in 1990s. In terms ofresearch contents, the initial studies mainly focused on the discussion about specificadvertising translation of idioms and the existing problems in Chinese-Englishadvertising translation. That was the primary stage. Years later, advertisingtranslation principle and criteria became the research themes. People hold the viewthat, advertising translation should give attention to in many aspects, such as text,language beauty, consumer psychology. Researchers illustrated their respectivepoints of view from different angles. Since the late 90s, although the discussion oftranslation principle and criteria were still mentioned, the researchers' attention weregradually focused on translation of difficult parts in advertising, such as therhetorical devices, emotional transmission, brand image and trademark reproduction ,etc. In terms of research methods, domestic advertising translation study mainly usesthe inductive method and the case study. Nevertheless, in recent years, researchersbegin to use the theory achievements of pragmatics and other related disciplines toanalyze different kinds of problems in advertising translation, and then put forwardsome translation strategies.
As early as 1992, Li Fan proposed the development of the advertising languageposed a severe challenge to advertising translation. The artful advertisings require thetranslator to break hard the tradition of the original, boldly innovate, and improve thequality of translation. There are three reasons for flexible advertising translation: 1）the purpose of advertising is to induce consumer to purchase products. Text is justmeans, so translations do not have to stick to the text equivalent; 2） the feature ofadvertising language is vivid, which is the essence of advertising language. If thetranslation is not bold to change, there will be no magic translation; 3） formulaicexpressions are common use in advertising, if not alternative, it may be translatedinto foreign stereotyped writing （黎凡 1992:29-31）。 At the same time, researchersthought in terms of some specific advertisements, flexible translation seems to be theonly way, especially in the four kinds of advertising: 1） advertising used of witty and polished words; 2） advertising used of brand name; 3） advertising used of puns; 4）advertising with strong national culture color.
In order to achieve concise expression, attract more readers' attention, facilitatereaders recognize and remember, advertising writing should follow the KISSprinciple, namely, “keep it short and sweet” （郭可 1992:57-64）。 A great number ofstudies on advertising translation are associated with concise problem. Ding Shude isdedicated to his studies. He holds that: 1） Chinese advertising often uses modifiers toemphasis, product characteristics, while English advertising is simple words, mainlywith oral type. a lot of subject-predicative phrases in Chinese can be directlytranslated into adjectives English , such as 速度快、效率高、行动灵活 can betranslated into “fast, efficient and handy”; 2） There are a large number of the fourwords in Chinese advertising structure, which bring parallelism and overlapping tostrengthen language, but there is no such characteristic in English. InChinese-English translation should hold the center, around the center word leads toall aspects; 3） there are often loose sentences, which express a large amount ofinformation in Chinese advertising. Translation should be concise and compact,strengthen the logic; 4） Chinese advertising commonly uses formulaic expressions.
Translation should be fascinating, considering the overall rhetorical, but not stackrhetoric. Good English advertising language is not many words, but it is impressive（丁树德 1995: 42-43）。 Cao Shunfa also takes a large number of examples of bothEnglish-Chinese translation two aspects show that based on the principle of simple,the translation of advertising language should strive to use the most simple languageto express the most complex meaning, to make it easy to be remembered （曹顺发2002: 43-45）。
Equivalence theory is based on Nida's equivalence translation theory. On thisbasis, some researchers point out that commercial advertising translation is mainlyon the equivalence of semantic, social and cultural, and stylistic aspect. 1） Thesemantic equivalence. This is the most basic and important equivalence. From wordto chapter, in order to achieve the semantic equivalence, the first thing to thetranslator is that he must determine the meaning of the translation unit in context.
The translator should pay attention to avoid leading ambiguity and interpretingwithout real understanding; 2） social and cultural equivalence. Translation is to introduce foreign culture. Due to the restriction of cultural differences and languageform, there is rarely a pair of words between English and Chinese, so the social andcultural factors should be considered in the translation equivalence. Strong culturalcolor of idioms, allusions, such as proper nouns in the translation should be adjusted,translate its true meaning; 3） the stylistic equivalence. One of the translation task isto reproduce the original style and literary style, keep the spirit and the form of theoriginal （蒋磊 1994:38-41）。 By contrast, other equivalence theory researchers are morevalued function equivalence. They think advertising translation should be followedby the equivalent principle on the basis of functional equivalence, and notconstrained by the original text expression （苏淑惠 1996:51-56）。
Some researchers point out that the aesthetic factors play a significant role incommercial advertising. Studies show that if there are connotation aesthetics andlanguage aesthetics, the advertising will be successful. Connotation aestheticsinclude the beauty of artistic conception, image, emotion and culture; languageaesthetics include the beauty of concise, word, sentence, phonology and rhetoric. Sotranslation should reproduce the original beauty, and extend when necessary, makethe translation have the same publicity effect with the original text （ 汪文格1999:86-89）。 They think that successful advertising is art fused of aesthetics,linguistics and psychology. In cross-cultural communication, when the literalmeaning and aesthetic feeling of advertising conflicts, the translator should abandonform, and reproduce the aesthetic feeling to strengthen its charisma and allure,achieve communicative effect. So advertising translation should adhere to theprinciple of dialectical unification of loyal and creative, organic combination ofequivalent and aesthetics （唐艳芳 2003:112-116）。
Some researchers argue that advertising communication task restricts the choiceof language. Advertising style brings out concise and implicit characteristics.
Creative advertising language and translation should show the characteristics in theaspects of words, grammar, and rhetoric and culture psychology. Perform goodstheme accurately, make the audience psychological resonance and have a buyingdesire （谢建平 2002:37-40）。
The doctrine is not opposed to each other. They were essentially complementedeach other and fusion of each other. If advertising translation cannot be promotional, it will not be adopted. David Ogilvy said that advertising is not a kind of art form. Hedidn't want to hear others praise his advertising how creative. He just hopes it canattract people to purchase goods （David Ogilvy 2003）。
Since the early 90s, discussion about advertising translation methods appearedin foreign language periodicals, such as Chinese Translation. Li Xiangde points outthat four words phrase translations from Chinese into English can adopt threemethods: Literal translation, free translation and rhetorical translation. Literaltranslation is a corresponding structure. Free translation makes a little ellipsis,supplemented or sequential adjustment with the original text. Rhetoric translationusing rhetoric methods to make advertising language more vivid and attractive toconsumers （李祥德 1990:13-16）。
Jiang Lei summed up that there are four ways of advertising translation. Theyare literal translation, liberal translation, modeling translation and translation. Literaltranslation refers to retain the original text characteristics from content to culture.
Free translation refers to keep content and abandon the translation form. Modelingtranslation directly uses ready-made advertising formulas which are corresponding tothe original form. Translation means in accordance with the target language habits,translate from the angle of view, the actual situation and image （蒋磊 1994:38-41）。
Yang Quan Hong's article in science and technology of China points out thatdue to the particularity of international advertising, the translation should be differentfrom the traditional translation. As the supplement of routine advertising translation,the author put forward interpretation translation, namely, in order to adapt to thedestination market, recreate in target language against its original shape.
Interpretation translation helps across barriers in worldwide advertising translation,and it is conducive to make full use of its advantages in language translation （杨全红2000:16-19）。
Meng Lin and Zhan Jinghui analyze the types of puns in advertising, namely,homophonic puns, semantic puns, grammatical puns and idioms or colloquialismspun. They put forward the five kinds of punning translation （孟琳、詹晶辉 2001:48-51）。
In advertising translation, trademark translation is an important part. In terms ofits principle, researchers are generally recognized that it should be concise and vividas. Brevity is intended to facilitate the recognition memory. Vividness is to keep the brand image, maintain consistency of the global image. Two points are decided bythe inherent requirement of trademark function. According to the principle ofaesthetics, Hu Kaibao and Chen Zai Quan point out that the trademark translationshould be having popular beauty, simple beauty, strange beauty, rhyme beauty andartistic conception. Making trademark translation has affinity, arouse consumersdream, enhance their desire （胡开宝、陈在权 2000:51-53）。
Li Kexing summarizes Hong Kong enterprise and brand name translationprinciples and methods, proposes that from the perspective of a large number ofestablished translation, translator pursues four principles: considering both of soundand meaning; transliteration; avoid using ordinary common words （because thetrademark translation takes ordinary vocabulary exacerbate Chinese phenomenon ofpolysemy, negative social communication）； avoid cultural taboos.
Jiang Lei from the perspective of social pragmatics, in view of theChinese-English cultural differences caused by the pragmatic failures in trademarktranslation, Jiang Lei puts forward five pragmatic translation strategies: 1.Highlightthe expressive function of a trademark; Show the national culture and seize theassociative meaning; 3.Picked up the auspicious beg, cater to consumer psychology;4.Cut accurate market positioning and pursuit of new business concepts; 5.Payattention to the cultural empathy and conform to the aesthetic psychological （蒋磊2002:52-56）。 This paper is full of examples. Jiang emphasizes the importance ofbrand translation in the cross-cultural barriers.
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Chapter One provides a brief background on the study. It introduces and explains the necessity of the study.
Chapter Two reviews relevant research related to advertising translation. Itintroduces the related research studies of advertising translation in China and west.
Chapter Three presents the theoretical framework which is the fundamentaltheoretical guidance of the thesis. It reviews the background and the development ofthe Skopos theory, and introduces three principles of the Skopos theory: the Skoposrule, the coherence rule and fidelity rule.
Chapter Four introduces gives a general introduction of advertising and majorlanguage features of English advertising.
Chapter Five expounds and proves the applicability of the Skopos theory toEnglish-Chinese advertising translation and explores specific translation strategies toEnglish-Chinese advertising translation under the guidance of the Skopos theory.
Chapter Six is conclusion of the entire thesis. Through the above analysis andresearch, this thesis concludes that on the basis of the Skopos theory,English-Chinese translation can be effectively guided. Meanwhile, the thesis alsopoints out the shortages of the study.
there are some analyses or comments in the thesis which may not beprofound because of limitation of advertising knowledge and practical workingexperience in the advertising field. However, in the future, more efforts will be madeto probe into the topic of advertising translation.
Meanwhile, English advertising is different from other literary translation. English advertising has its particular purpose and unique rhetorical features. To makethe target readers or consumers feel the charm of the source text, and finally promotethe goal of sale, translator should use flexible translation according to the differentrhetoric characteristics.